英语四级翻译的原则与方法(一)

翻译界长期信奉的原则是“信”、“达”、“雅”三原则,但在四级考试中,对汉语cet4v.com,所以我们只要做到“信”和“达”就可以了。当然,要做到这两点的根本是理解。

  1.理解第一原则

  很多的“名师”很重视英译汉的技巧,以至于很多考生过分侧重对翻译技巧的训练,而忽略了翻译实际上是英文理解和英汉转换两个方面完美结合的过程。而从以往四级英语考试的翻译试题来看,往往要求翻译的句子正是阅读短文中的难句、长句,评分的原则也是“对译文的要求是‘正确’和‘表达清楚’,对汉语不作过高要求”。如果拿着翻译题就一味想着把英文往中文里套,却没有意识到自己对原文的理解实际上就有偏差,这就很难得到理想的分数了。

  

  因此,拿到翻译题之后,第一重要的是先确定原句的意思。如果句子较长,可以先找主、谓、宾、定、状、补,分析清楚句子结构,然后再理解。切忌逐字翻译。

  从四级考试选择翻译句子的特点上来说,有点像是针对大学英语精读课文中的重点难点句子的解析和翻译这一环节的测试。因此大家在平常英语课学习时,要注意积极参与课堂的句子解析活动,多分析复杂长句的结构。这样,到考试时运用自如,就很容易得分。

  为了便于大家复习,下面总结了一些在大学英语精读课文中出现的长句,大家可以自己分析理解一下。然后,译为中文。

  ①A survey of the children’s parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had enough self-control to hold out for the second marshmallow generally grew up to be better adjusted,more popular,adventures,confident and dependable teenagers.

  对孩子们的家长和老师的调查表明,那些在四岁时就有足够的自制力坚持等到第二粒果汁软糖的孩子,长大后一般都成了适应性比较强,更惹人喜爱,富于冒险精神、自信并值得信赖的少年。

  ②There was a huge library near the riverfront,but I knew that Negroes were not allowed to patronize its shelves any more than they were the parks and playgrounds of the city.

  河畔有一个大图书馆,但是我知道,它是不允许黑人光顾的,就像这个城里的公园和运动场所不让黑人光顾一样。

  ③Think of the luxury with which for a time,at least,fate rewarded Napoleon, the man who ruined France and looted Europe;and then perhaps you will agree that a few thousand dollars’ worth of debts were not too heavy a price to pay for the Ring Trilogy.

  想一想命运至少曾一度赐给拿破仑,那个毁灭法国、洗劫欧洲的人的那种奢华吧;这样一比,你也许会同意,用几千元的债买《指环》三部曲并不太贵。


  ④This intuition that looks matter little may be another instance of our denying real influences upon us,for there is now a file drawer full of research studies indicating that appearance is a powerful determinant of initial attraction.

  这种认为外貌并不重要的直觉行为,也许是我们否认对我们真正有影响的事物的又一个例子,因为有大量的调查研究的结果表明,外表是最初是否引人注意的重要决定因素。

  ⑤These modern means of communication ensure that English speakers around the world have a vested interest in communicating with each other in a common language.

  这些现代通信工具确保全世界讲英语的人互相交流时使用一种共同语言的既得利益。

  ⑥The stepped-up pace of invention, application and diffusion, in turn, accelerates the whole cycle still further.

  反过来,发明、应用与推广的速度的加快进一步加速了整个过程的循环。

  ⑦In America, plans by the government to allow government agencies and intelligence sevices easy access to telephone conversations and electronic mail have caused considerable concern.

  在美国,政府允许政府部门和情报机构方便地监听电话和电子邮件的计划引起了相当的不安。

   ⑧Some priests, nuns and researchers spend a great deal of time shepherding or observing shopping-bag ladies and are doing what they can to better the life of the lady hermits who are down.

  一些牧师、修女和研究人员花了大量时间照管她们,观察她们,并尽其所能使这些贫困的女隐士们生活得好些。

  2.信的原则

  所谓“信”,就是要忠实、准确。

  翻译所要表达的是被翻译文章的观点和内容,因而难免会遇到译者不同意或不熟悉的内容和观点。但是译者没有选择的权利,必须按照原文的内容和观点来译,使译文忠于原文。任何句子的翻译都必须准确、完整的传达原文作者的思想内容。译者不得对原文的意思做任何增删或改动。例如:

  It is not easy to become a member of that club——they want people who have plenty of money to spend,not just every Tom, Dick and Harry.

  误译:要加入个俱乐部并不容易——他们要的是有钱花的人,不只是汤姆、迪克和哈利等。

  not just跟前面的people who have plenty of money to spend相对,在这里指代一般人,平民百姓。译者没有把握到原文的思想内容,产生误译。

  正确译文:要加入那个俱乐部并不容易——他们要的是有钱花的富人,不是随便哪个平民百姓。

  3.“达”的原则

  所谓“达”,就是要顺达、通顺。翻译时必须做到译文通顺流畅,符合汉语的表达习惯。英语和汉语的语言思维差别很大。这样,译者翻译时必须在传达思想的同时,做好语言习惯的转化,以便得到的译文能够成为规范的汉语,为汉语阅读者读懂。例如:

  It is mark of Rembrandt’s entrepreneurial achievement that he managed to get so many artists to adopt his idiosyncratic style and pass themselves off as him.

  误译:那是伦布朗企业家般的成就的标志,他成功的使那么多艺术家采用他那独特的方式以及把他们自己假扮成伦布朗。该句原文中it是形式主语,翻译时为尊重汉语习惯,可以省略不译,that后引导的是真正的主语。

  正确翻译:伦布朗能够使这么多艺术家采用他那独特的方式以及把自己假冒成伦布朗,这标志了他企业家般的成就。

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