孙子兵法(中英对照)1

孙子兵法 The Art of War
孙武 By Sun Tzu Translated by Lionel Giles

始计第一

Laying Plans

孙子曰:兵者,国之大事,死生之地,存亡之道,不可不察也。

Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.

故经之以五事,校之以计,而索其情:一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰将,五曰法。

The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one's deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.

These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

道者,令民于上同意,可与之死,可与之生,而不危也;

The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.

天者,阴阳、寒暑、时制也;

Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.

地者,远近、险易、广狭、死生也;

Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.

将者,智、信、仁、勇、严也;

The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.

法者,曲制、官道、主用也。

By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.


凡此五者,将莫不闻,知之者胜,不知之者不胜。

These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail.

故校之以计,而索其情,曰:主孰有道?

Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise:——

将孰有能?天地孰得?法令孰行?兵众孰强?士卒孰练?赏罚孰明?吾以此知胜负矣。

(1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?

By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.

将听吾计,用之必胜,留之;将不听吾计,用之必败,去之。

The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat:——let such a one be dismissed!

计利以听,乃为之势,以佐其外。

While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules.

势者,因利而制权也。

According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one's plans.

兵者,诡道也。

All warfare is based on deception.

故能而示之不能,用而示之不用,近而示之远,远而示之近。

Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

利而诱之,乱而取之,

Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.

实而备之,强而避之,

If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.

怒而挠之,卑而骄之,

If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.

佚而劳之,亲而离之,

If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.

攻其无备,出其不意。

Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

此兵家之胜,不可先传也。

These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand.

夫未战而庙算胜者,得算多也;未战而庙算不胜者,得算少也。多算胜少算,而况于无算乎!吾以此观之,胜负见矣。

Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple where the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

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