四六级翻译中语序的调整

语序可以根据定语的位置、状语的位置、汉英语言叙事重心不同、强弱词语的顺序不同以及否定转移等方式进行调整。
(1)定语的位置
汉语的定语通常在修饰词之前,英语的定语位置分两种:前置和后置。单词充当定语通常放在被修饰的中心词前;而短语和从句作定语则多置于所修饰的中心语之后。

钓鱼是一项能够陶冶性情的运动,有益于身心健康。
Fishing is an outdoor sport that can help cultivate your mind and it is good for our mental and physical health.
【2014-6】一些为接受更好教育而转往城市上学的学生如今又回到了本地农村学校就读。
Some students who once transferred to urban schools for better education now return to the local rural schools.(定语后置)
仅在11月11日,中国消费者就从国内最大的购物平台购买了价值90亿美元的商品。
Only on the November 11, Chinese consumers boughtthe goodsworth of $9 billion on the biggest shopping platform.(定语后置)
【2015-6】中国是世界上最古老的文明之一。
China is one of the world’s most ancient civilizations.(前置定语)

(2)状语的位置
汉语按事情发生先后叙述,而英语中时间状语从句可在主句前,也可在主句后。

我吃了晚饭后出去散步。
I went out for a walk after I had my dinner.
After I had my dinner, I went out for a walk.
2011年3月日本核电站事故后,中国的核能开发停了下来。
China's nuclear power development stopped after the nuclear power station accident in Japan in March, 2011.
我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园中大千世界,一片喧闹。
Without being noticed,I lifted the curtain in my small room,only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden.(状语前置)
中华民族自古以来从不把人看作高于一切。
【2014-12】随着旅行多了,年轻人在大城市和著名景点花的时间少了。
With the increase of traveling, young people spend moretime inremote areas rather than big cities and famous resorts.(状语前置)
Chinese people has never regarded human being as the highest creature among everything else since ancient times.(状语后置)

他本来在天津开会,会议一结束,他就上北京去度假了,昨天才坐飞机回来。
He had flown yesterday from Beijing where he spent his vacation after finishing the meeting he had taken part in Tianjin.
【2014-12】自1961年该基金会成立以来,大熊猫就一直是它的徽标。
Giantpanda has been its symbol ever since WWF's establishmentin 1961.(状语后置)
(多个时间状语出现时,汉语按时间先后顺序排列,而英语中状语的顺序则比较灵活。)
他是1970年5月20日在北京朝阳区出生的。
He was born in Chaoyang District of Beijing on May 20,1970.
【2014-6】2011年3月日本核电站事故后,中国的核能开发停了下来
China's nuclear power development stopped after the nuclear power station accident in Japan in March, 2011.
(汉语中时间状语在地点状语之前,时间状语与地点状语按从大到小的顺序排列;而英语中地点状语在时间状语之前,时间状语与地点状语按从小到大的顺序排列。)

(3)汉英语言叙事重心不同
汉语先叙事,而后表态或评论,以突出话题,这种句子被称为主题句;汉译英时有时会译为掉尾句,即先表态或进行评论,后叙事,以突出主句。

下次会议要讨论什么,你给我们透透风吧。
Will you give us some idea of what will be taken up at the next meeting?
万一有什么困难,请给我们一个信。
Send us a message in case you have any difficulty.

(4)强弱词语的顺序不同
表示感情色彩的轻重、强弱时,汉语将重的内容、强的词语放在前面;英语将语义轻的内容、弱的词语放在前面,基本原则是前轻后重,前简后繁。

一霎时,一阵被人摒弃,为世所遗忘的悲愤兜上心头,禁不住痛哭起来。
In no time,I was thrown into a feeling of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and abandoned by the rest of the world and could not help crying my heart out.
(原文中,感情色彩较重的词“摒弃”在前,相对较弱的词“遗忘”在后,但在英译文中却应调整。)

(5)否定转移
他要等你答应帮助他后才肯走。
He won’t go away until you promise to help her.

了解了语序的调整之后,大家在翻译的时候,就更容易翻译出比较地道的英文了。


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