大学修炼十大技能敲定第一份工作

The number of jobs available for graduates is predicted to rise by 10.2%, according to a survey by the Association of Graduate Recruiters. Good news for students – but when you come to apply for your first job after university, are you sure you'll have the relevant skills for the post?
据“毕业生招聘协会”的调研预测,今年英国毕业生的职位会增加10.2%。这是众多毕业生的福音——可是,当你申请大学毕业后的第一份工作时,你确定自己拥有招聘广告上列出来的所有相关技能么?

Leaving it until you're sitting in front of a blank computer screen trying to write your CV for a graduate job may well be too late to assess the qualities you've got to offer.
如果拖到坐在电脑前开始为申请工作整理简历时候,再去考虑技能问题,就太晚啦。

"From day one students should see the start of university as the start of their working life," says Dan Hawes, co-founder of the Graduate Recruitment Bureau. "Think of the skills you need to have when you finish university in three or four years time and then work backwards, so you're hoarding skills each year."
“从第一天开始,学生就该把大学的开始看做职业生涯的开始,”毕业生招聘局的联合创办人丹·霍斯讲道。“想想自己未来三四年中大学毕业时需要的技能,然后倒推回来,这样每年就都在贮藏技能。”

Gemma Pirnie, founder of Your New Crew, says: "When I left university I was completely unprepared for what the grad market would throw at me. I thought having a 2:1 from a good university and having a bit of (irrelevant) work experience would see me land a job no problem – not the case."
“为您招聘”公司的创始人杰玛·皮尔纳讲道:“当年我离开大学的时候,对于接下来要面对的毕业生市场,没有任何概念。我以为能以过半的成绩从一个好大学毕业,有些(不相关的)工作经验,就能毫无悬念地找到工作——其实不然。”

Obviously the skills you need will depend on the job you apply for, but there are some things that graduate recruiters are looking for that you can start thinking about now.

显然,你会用到的技能由所申请的工作决定,但是,招聘人员想要应聘者拥有的有些技能,你现在就可以开始考虑了。

Business sense
商业理念

"Candidates who start their own societies, organise their university ball or start their own T-shirt-making business while at uni tend to have a good grasp of how a business makes money," says Cary Curtis, managing director of Give-a-grad-a-go.“
应聘者中,凡是大学期间自己开过社团,组织过舞会或者做过T恤衫生意的,都会对如何做生意赚钱有更多了解,”“创意毕业生招聘”的管理主任卡里·柯蒂斯讲道。

An understanding of business is one of the main skills that students underestimate, according to a 2013 Guardian survey. Less than 10% of students thought it was a vital skill, compared to nearly 50% of employers.
据2013年《卫报》调研报道,商业理念是常被学生低估的技能之一。不到10%的学生认为这是项重要的技能,而招聘者中认为如此的有50%。

"You don't need to be the next Mark Zuckerberg," says Curtis, "but having a good idea of how a business runs and the challenges involved are really useful skills to take into a company."
“你不必成为下一个马克·扎克伯格,” 柯蒂斯讲道,“但是知道怎样经营一个生意,了解其中的挑战,对公司而言是非常有用的。”

Get global
全球化理念

"More and more employers are wanting graduates to have a 'global mindset', which means understanding different cultures and how industries work across borders," says Stephen Isherwood, chief executive of the Association of Graduate Recruiters.
“越来越多的雇主希望毕业生有‘全球化的理念’——了解不同的文化,以及工业产业如何跨国运作,” “毕业生招聘协会”的首席执行官斯蒂芬·伊舍伍德讲道。

Isherwood recommends that students make the most of time at uni to meet people from around the world, consider study abroad schemes like Erasmus, and says that speaking another language shows that a grad has a "better cultural understanding".
伊舍伍德建议学生们多花时间和来自世界各地的人交流,考虑伊拉斯莫国外交流学习项目,会从中受益很多。伊舍伍德也讲道,会讲一门外语也体现出毕业生有“更好的文化理解能力”。(小编注:“Erasmus Mundus” 项目是欧洲在高等教育领域的一个合作性学生交流项目。)

A language
会讲一门外语

"If you speak another language then make sure it's clearly displayed on your CV," says Curtis. "We really like bilingual candidates as they usually interview really well. But quite often their CV doesn't do them justice. 'Business fluent French' looks much better than just 'French A-level at grade A' as it offers a company more."
“如果你会讲外语,记得在简历上清楚地标明,” 柯蒂斯讲道,“我们真的很喜欢会双语的应聘者,因为他们通常面试表现都很棒。但是很多时候他们的简历都没有为他们争取到机会。‘流利的商务法语’看起来比只是‘法语初级考试A等’更有吸引力,因为这能给公司带来更多。”

Be careful though. "If you haven't had much practice with your languages make sure you scrub up before sending out a CV that implies you can hold your own.
"但是要特别注意。“如果你没有怎样练习过这门语言,确保在你发出简历之前把这项你还需加强的语言技能去掉。”

A squeaky clean digital footprint
完美的个人网络档案

"Start building a digital footprint of relevance to what you want to do," says Smith. "Employers, just like everyone else, will look on the internet as a first port of call."
“把你计划做的事情在网上记录下来,”史密斯讲道。“雇主和其他人一样,考核你的时候会先去网站上搜集信息。”

That might mean setting up a LinkedIn profile, starting your own blog or website, joining Twitter, and generally making sure you're careful about what goes online connected to you.
你可以在“领英”网站建立自己的档案,开通个人博客或网站,加入推特,同时要大致注意网上可查的和你相关的信息。

Chris Smith, chief executive of Opinio Group recruiters, says: "If the only thing employers can find is you with traffic cones on your head on Facebook then you're in trouble."
“观点群体”招聘方的首席执行官克里斯·史密斯讲道:“如果雇主在网上能找到的唯一关于你的信息,是你脸谱网上头戴交通锥标的搞怪照片,那么你完了。”

Office etiquette
办公室礼仪

Knowing how to fit into an office will come in handy for many graduate jobs, so it's a good idea to look for opportunities to spend time in one while you're still a student.
知道怎样融入办公室环境对毕业生找工作很有用。所以当学生的时候,找机会去办公室体验下,是个不错的主意。

Hawes says: "What some graduates might not have is the office know-how, maybe they've never worked in an office before so everything's new, whether it's answering the phone or the way you dress or address people, the things like that – office etiquette."
霍斯说道:“很多毕业生可能不知道在办公室应该怎样做事,也许他们从没在这样的环境工作过,所以一切都是陌生的,无论是接电话、穿着还是称呼别人都属于办公室礼仪。

How to make a good cuppa
怎样泡杯好茶

Sam Espensen, managing director of Conversation Creation, says: "One of the skills that has stood me in great stead is making great tea and coffee. I once had a grad refuse to make my team drinks because it 'suggested he was below the rest of us' – needless to say he didn't last long.
“创造对话”的管理主任山姆 ·埃斯佩森讲道:“我在办公室站稳脚跟的技能之一就是会准备很棒的茶和咖啡。曾经有毕业生拒绝给我的团队准备饮品,因为他自己认为这样显得低人一等——毫无疑问,他当然没能在办公室呆太久。”

"We all make tea in my team and the person who brings me a cup of tea unprompted is likely to be my hero for the day."
“我们团队的成员都会泡茶,而那个自发帮我端上一杯茶的人,就是我那天的福星。”

Sussing out the culture of a workplace (whether they all make tea for each other, for example) is really important when you come to look for work.
当你准备参加工作时,留心办公室的文化(比如他们是否会帮别人泡茶)是非常重要的。

Good with computers
擅长电脑

"Hard skills in programming and software development for us are really valuable," says Hawes. Curtis adds that being highly numerate and having good analytical skills is increasingly important.
“编程和软件开发的硬性技能是我们很看重的,” 霍斯讲道。柯蒂斯补充讲道,优秀的计算和分析能力正日益变得重要起来。

But even if you're not applying for a job in a tech company, being digitally savvy is still really important.
即使你不是申请科技公司的职位,精通数码产品仍是非常重要的。

"All employers expect graduates to be computer literate," says Isherwood. "Generally just being aware of the digital age is important. That doesn't mean having programming skills, but understanding that instant messaging and conference calls are common in the business world and having basic IT skills like working with spreadsheets and documents."
“所有的雇主都期望毕业生精通电脑,” 伊舍伍德讲道。“总的来讲,重要的是认识到现在是数码时代。这并不意味着要会编程,但是知道即时通讯和电话会议是商业中很常见的,要会使用诸如电子表格和文档等基本的电脑操作技能 。

Teamwork
团队合作

If you've been thinking of joining a uni sports team but haven't quite found the motivation, here's another reason to join: it could help you get a job. Smith says: "What shows better that someone can be part of a team than the fact they've spent the past two years playing for a team.
"如果你在考虑加入学校运动队却还没找到动力,这就是个理由:它可以帮你找到工作。史密斯讲道:“至于证实个人的团队精神,还有什么比过去两年在团队里打比赛这一事实更有说服力呢。”

Being able to work with other people is a key skill employers are looking for and you'll need to prove it's something you have had experience of beyond your course.
能和他人很好地合作是雇主们寻找的重要技能之一,你要能证明自己课外有过这方面的经历。

"When talking about teamwork don't use university examples," says Isherwood. "At uni the teams are chosen for you, so it's much more impressive to speak about sport or involvement with a society."
“讲道团队合作的时候,不要用学校里的例子,” 伊舍伍德讲道。“在学校,团队是为你选好的,所以讲讲在运动队或者社会活动中的例子,会给人留下更深的印象。”

Talking to people
与人交流

Getting confident talking to people is useful for building up your contacts. Pirnie says: "Attend industry meet ups. This will help you both with articulating your interests and with interview techniques as you'll quickly become comfortable talking to new people.
"能够自信地和别人交流对于建立关系网是很有用的。皮尔尼讲道:“参加工业界的聚会。这会帮你更清晰地表达自己的兴趣,与此同时能够自在地和陌生人交谈也是很有用的面试技能。

Smith recommends going to exhibitions and conventions in your chosen field. He says: "There are small business conventions going on all over the country. Go to them, meet people, ask some questions. And if you're not sure yet quite what you want to do, all the more reason to get out there and investigate."
史密斯推荐大家去参加自己所在领域的展览和会议。他讲道:“全国各地都有小型的商业会议。去参加这类会议,结识陌生人,问些问题。如果你还不太确定自己想做什么,就更有理由参与其中去发现啦。”

Positive attitude
积极的态度

If you're still at uni, it's worth thinking about how you can build up all these skills. But if you're in your final year and haven't ticked them all, don't worry. "Employers often say that they hire for attitude and train for skill," says Hawes. So whatever experience you've got to your name, a positive attitude is still the most important thing you can bring to your first job.
如果你还在大学,很值得好好考虑下自己可以怎样培养这些技能。但如果你已经是大四最后一年却还没掌握全部技能, 也不要担心。“雇主们总会讲他们会选择态度,然后培养技能,” 霍斯讲道。所以,无论你有什么技能,积极的态度仍是决定你第一份工作的最重要因素。

A few more things to consider
你还可以考虑这些

• A driving licence:
• 驾照:

"A driving licence certainly isn't the prerequisite that it used to be," says Curtis, but if you haven't yet learnt to drive it's still worth trying before you leave uni. Smith says: "It can be important. Also, it speaks volumes if you can't drive. The first thing I think is – why not? It hints at laziness."
“驾照当然不会是雇佣新人的前提了,” 柯蒂斯讲道,但是如果你还没学过开车,有必要在离开大学之前开始这一计划了。史密斯讲道:“这点也可以变得重要。而且,如果你不会开车,其实可以体现一点。首先我想到的是——为什么不会呢?这暗示你很懒呢。”

• You can pick up skills in unlikely places:
• 你会在自己想都想不到的地方学到技能:

Espensen's father ran a cottage industry making model planes, and when she was a student she "reluctantly" helped out, packing the kits and posting them out. At the time she had no idea that the knowledge she built up would come in handy – but she ended up working doing the PR for the Bomber Command Memorial and realised how useful it was.
埃斯佩森的爸爸管理着制作飞机模型的家庭手工业。当她还是学生的时候,她很“勉强地”帮忙,打包装备,再邮寄出去。当时,她完全不知道自己无觉中学到的东西有天会如此有用——但她最终在轰炸机司令部纪念馆做公关工作,之后开始意识到自己当初学到的东西多么有用。

Things you get involved with at university and in your own time might not seem directly linked to what you want to do in the future, but you never know when those skills might come in handy.
大学期间,你在课余时间做的一些事情,也许看似并不和未来的目标直接相关,但你永远不会知道这些技能将带给你什么。

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